Chord Construction
I am going to approach chord construction from the point of view of the major scale.

E Form

Using the E form scale, I have diagramed the scale with numbers indicating the tones of the scale through a two octave range.

The Major Chord (1,3,5)

The major chord is constructed by combing the first, third and fifth tones of the scale. A simple version of the major chord could look like this:

 

 

Or another possibility would be:

The order in which the tones are played isnít important. They donít need to be in order of 1st, 3rd and 5th. This example is still a major chord:

It is possible to use "doublings" when creating chords. That is the use of more than one of any of the chord tones. For example:

The Major 7 Chord (1,3,5,7)

The major 7 chord is created by adding a seventh scale tone to the first, third and fifth tones. Using the E form scale, you can choose any combination of those 4 tones, in any order with as many or few doublings as you would like. Here are some possibilities. I have circled the location of the root, or first tone.

The 6 Chord (1,3,5,6)

The 6th chord is created by adding the 6th scale tone to the major chord. Here are some examples:

 

The Sus4 Chord (1,4,5)

The suspended 4 chord is a major chord with the 4th tone substituted for the 3rd tone.

The Sus2 Chord (1,2,5)

In the suspended 2 chord, the 2nd tone of the scale substitutes for the 3rd tone.
Sometimes the sus2 chord is used interchangeably with the add9 chord. To be absolutely accurate, the add9 chord is not the same. It does use the 2nd tone of the scale, but it should be played at the upper octave. Also, in the add9 chord, it is not necessary to replace the 3rd tone with the 9th. Just simply add the 9th tone to the tones of the major chord.

The Major9 Chord (1,3,5,7,9)

There is a small difference between the major9 and the add9 chords. The major9 has all the same tones but includes a 7th tone as well.

The 6/9 Chord (1,3,5,6,9)

The 6/9 chord is a major chord with an added 6th and an added 9th tone. The 3rd should be present, but the 5th can be omitted if you choose.

The Minor Chord (1,b3,5)

To create a minor chord, lower the 3rd tone of the major chord.

The Minor7 Chord (1,b3,5,b7)

The minor7 chord has both a flatted 3rd tone and a flatted 7th tone as well as the 1st and 5th tones.

The Minor6 Chord (1,b3,5,6)

The minor6 chord has a 6th tone added to the 1st, flatted 3rd and 5th tones.

The Minor Add9 Chord (1,b3,5,,9)

The minor add9 chord contains the same notes as the minor chord with a 9th tone added.

 

The Minor9 Chord (1,b3,5,b7,9)

The minor9 chord contains the same notes as the minor7 chord with an additional 9th tone. When the harmony gets this extended, it may become necessary to omit notes because you donít have enough fingers or strings to get every note. The first note to be omitted is the 5th scale tone. Omitting the 3rd takes away the distinction between major and minor, so it is a last resort. Omitting the 7th would change the minor9 to a minor add9. Omitting the root (1st tone) would change the name of the chord unless you had a bass player to play the root for you. When it is unavoidable, I will omit the root. When I omit the root in a diagram, I put an empty circle in the position where the root would go. 

The 7-9 Chord      The 7+9 Chord

7-5-9 Chord              7-5+9 Chord

The 11 Chord              The +11 Chord

The 13 Chord      The 13-9 Chord      The 13+9 Chord

The A Form Chords

The Major Chord  
The Major7 Chord  

The 6 Chord

The Sus4 Chord      The Sus2 Chord

The Add9 Chord            The 6/9 Chord

The Major9 Chord
The Minor Chord

The minor7 Chord

The minor6 Chord
The Minor9 Chord

The Minor7-5 Chord

The m/maj7 Chord (or minor#7)
The 9 Chord

The 7-9 Chord   7+5+9Chord

7-5-9 Chord     7-5+9 Chord

 

The 11 Chord The +11 Chord

The 13 Chord The 13-9 Chord The 13+9 Chord

The A Form Chords

The following is the A form scale, used for creating the A form chords.

The Major Chord        The Major7 Chord

The 6 Chord

The Sus4 Chord

The Sus2 Chord
The Add9 Chord This is the same as the sus2 except it has the 3rd tone also included, and the 2nd tone is always played at the octave above the root. It isn't possible to reach all of the necessary notes using the A form scale.

The Major9 Chord

Also not available in this form.
The 6/9 Chord Also not available in this form.

The Minor Chord           The Minor7 Chord

The Minor6 Chord              The Add9 Chord

The Minor9 Chord

Not available in this form.

The Minor7-5 Chord  

The m/maj7 Chord 

The Minor6/9 Chord

The Minor9#7 Chord The Minor11 Chord  The Minor13 Chord    -    None of these chords are available in this form.

The 7th Chord 

 

The 7-5 Chord
The 7+5 Chord  
The 7Sus4 Chord

The 9th, Altered9ths, 11th and 13th Chords    -    Not available in this form.

G Form Chords

The Major Chord
The Minor Chord
The Maj7 Chord

The 6 Chord

The Sus4 Chord                                          The Sus2 Chord
The Major9 Chord
The 6/9 Chord
The Add9 Chord
The Minor6 Chord

The Minor Add9 Chord Minor9 The Minor7-5 Chord

The Minor#7 Chord     Minor6/9 Chord    Minor9#7

The Minor11 & Minor13 Chords    -    Not available in this form.

The 7th Chord

The 7-5 Chord  
The 7+5 Chord

The 7Sus4 Chord                                              The 9 Chord

The 9-5 Chord                       The 9+5 Chord
The 7-9 Chord                               The 7+9 Chord

The 7+5+9 Chord The 7+5-9 Chord The7-5+9 Chord

The 7-5-9 Chord The 11 Chord  
The +11 Chord   The 13 Chord
The 13-9 Chord The 13+9 Chord
D Form Chords

The Major Chord                  The Major7 Chord

The 6 Chord               The Sus4 Chord      The Sus2 Chord
Add9             Major9         6/9         Minor Chord
The Minor7 Chord The Minor6 Chord Minor Add9

The Minor9 Chord    The Minor7-5    The Minor#7   

The Minor 6/9 Chord The Minor9#7

The Minor11 & The Minor 13 Chords    -    Not available in this form.

The 7 Chord         The 7-5 Chord      The7+5 Chord

The 7Sus4 Chord   9 Chord      9-5 Chord  9+5 Chord

The 7+9 Chord       The 7-5+9 Chord

The 7-9, 7-5+9, 7+5-9, 7-5+9, 7-5-9, 11, 13, and altered 11 &13 Chords are not available in this form.

Augmented Chords (+)

Augmented chords are a special type of chord known as symmetrical chords. That means that the distance between each note in the chord is the same. In the case of the augmented chord, they are all an interval of a major 3rd (or two whole steps) apart. For example, the C augmented chord (sometimes written C+) is composed of the notes C, E and G#. There are two whole steps between C & E and two whole steps between E & G#. There are also two whole steps between G# and the next octave C. The C augmented chord could also be called the E augmented chord, since the E augmented chord consists of the notes E, G# and B# .(or C) The C+ and E+ chords could also be called G#+ as well. Since all of the notes as equadistant apart, the chord can be identified by any note in the chord. On the guitar, this chord would look like this:

If this chord were raised one fret higher, it would become C#+ or E#+ (F+) or A+. If it were raised another fret higher, it would become D+ or F#+ or A#+. If the form were raised another fret higher it would it would become the same three chords it was on the 1st fret. All augmented chords repeat themselves every four frets. There are three formations of augmented chords, one for each string set.

+ Chord for set 6,5,4,3 string set 5,4,3,2 string set 4,3,2,1
The augmented chord can also be played in open chord forms. Below are chord forms on 
string sets 6,3,2,1 and string set 6,4,3,2

The Diminished Chord

Like the augmented chord, the diminished chord is symmetrical chord. It can be identified by any note in the chord. Like the augmented chord, diminished chords repeat themselves as they progress up the fingerboard, but they repeat themselves every three frets instead of every four frets. There are five forms, one for each form in closed forms and two open forms.
String Set 4,3,2,1 Set 5,4,3,2 Set 6,5,4,3 Set 6,4,3,2 Set 5,3,2,1

Here is a downloadable pdf file of the Chord Theory page:  Chord Theory PDF

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